Biographies S






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Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80)
French existential philosopher, dramatist, novelist, and political journalist, author of such works as Being and Nothingness (1943; trans. 1953).






Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913)
Swiss linguist, co-founder (with Charles Sanders Peirce) of semiotics/semiology, and author of Course in General Linguistics, a watershed book that inspired the development of structuralism and poststructuralism.






Dorothy Sayers (1893-1957)
British writer and Christian apologist, best known for her Lord Peter Whimsey detective novels.






Joseph Scaliger (1484-1558)

Italian-born French Renaissance classical scholar.






Friedrich Schelling (1775-1854)
German Romantic idealist philosopher. 






Friedrich Schiller (1759-1805)
German poet, dramatist, philosopher, and historian.






Friedrich von Schlegel (1772-1829)
German Romantic man of letters and critic.






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Erwin Schrödinger  (1887-1961)
Austrian quantum physicist and Nobel Laureate. 






Fritjof Schuon (1907-1998)
German-Swiss writer, perhaps the greatest spokesman of the century for the philosophia perennis.






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Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965)
German theologian, missionary, musician, and physician. Winner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1952.






Theodore Schwenk
Anthroposophist, author of Sensitive Chaos: The Creation of Flowing Forms in Water and Air. He was the director of Director of the Institut für Strömungsforschung at Herrischried, Germany.






Ridley Scott (1937- )
British film director of movies like Alien, Thelma and Louise, Gladiator, and Black Hawk Down.






George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)
Controversial Irish-born British playwright, socialist, and wit, author of such works as Pygmalion, Major Barbara, Man and Superman, Caesar and Cleopatra, and The Devil's Disciple.






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Rupert Sheldrake (1942- )
Independent British "new scientist," who proposed the controversial theory of "morphogenetic fields" in A New Science of Life: The Hypothesis of Formative Causation (1981).






Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)
Major English Romantic poet, author of such works as Prometheus Unbound (1820).






Charles Sherrington (1857-1952)
British neurophysiologist, the author of Man on His Nature (1940), which had been delivered as the Gifford Lecture at Cambridge.






Lev Shestov (1866-1938)
Russian writer/philosopher. 






Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586)
British poet, statesman, and soldier, most famous for his "Defense of Poetry."






Angelus Silesius (1624-77)
Polish mystic and poet.






Simplicius (6th century A.D.)
Philosopher, a prominent commentator on Aristotlle.






George Gaylord Simpson (1902-1984)
Prominent American biologist, author of The Meaning of Evolution: A Study of the History of Life and Its Significance for Man and other books.






Huston Smith (1919- )
Chinese-born American historian of religion, author of The Religions of Man, Forgotten Truth: The Primordial Tradition, and other works.






Bruno Snell (1896-1998)
Author of The Discovery of the Mind in Greek Philosophy and Literature.






C. P. Snow (1905-1980)
British novelist, scientists, and administrator, best known for his formulation of the idea of the "two cultures."






Socrates (470?-399? BC)
Seminal Greek philosopher, the teacher of Plato and the chief character in Plato's Socratic dialogues.






Susan Sontag (1933- )
Influential, controversial American critic and novelist, author of such books as Against Interpretation, On Photography, and The Volcano Lover.






Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
British social philosopher, a key influence on the development of Social Darwinism.






G. Spencer-Brown
British mathematician, author of Laws of Form (1979).






Oswald Spengler (1880-1936)
German historian, author of The Decline of the West (1928).






Edmund Spenser (1552-99)
English Renaissance poet, author of The Faerie Queene.






Charlene Spretnak (1946- )
American writer and ecofeminist, author of States of Grace: The Recovery of Meaning in the Postmodern Age and other works.






Albert Steffen (1884-1963)
Swiss playwright, novelist, essayist, and philosopher, who because the leader of anthroposophy after Steiner's death.







Gertrude Stein (1874-1946)
American expatriate (in France) writer and literary patron, author of The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas and other books.






George Steiner (1929- )
British literary critic, author of such books as Silences, After Babel, and Heidegger.






Wallace Stevens (1879-1955)
American insurance executive and poet.







James Stewart (1908-97)
American movie actor, known for his work with Alfred Hitchcock. One of the major stars of his generation.






Ivor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
Russian composer, one of the most influential figures in 20th Century musics. Best known for his The Rite of Spring.






Henry Suso (1296-1366)
Dominican monk and mystic, author of Horologium Sapientiae.






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Emmanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772)
Swedish mystical thinker.