C. G. Jung
Though on the face of it Barfield's ideas would appear to have much in common with those of the Swiss founder of archetypal psychology and one-time follower of Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961). They share, after all, a common interest in the nature of consciousness and the primacy of the imagination as a "forgative" power (the term is Barfield's) and a common commitment to shattering the idols of modernity. Barfield was nevertheless careful to distinguish between their very different conceptions of the evolution of mind.

In Saving the Appearances, for example, he recalls that "We have watched with interest Jung developing his concept of a 'collective unconscious' of humanity as a whole, a concept which is inherently repugnant to the foundation of idolatry on which he had to build it." But Jung, too, succumbs finally to R.U.P.

    because of that very idolatry, the traditional myths and the archetypes which [Jung] tells us are the representations of the collective unconscious, are assumed by him to be, and always to have been, neatly insulated from the world of nature with which, according to their account, they were mingled or united. (SA 134)
"As far as I can make out," Barfield has Burgeon conclude in Worlds Apart, "when all's said and done, Jung's idea of the myths and the archetypes they employ, is based on some kind of 'projection' by the unconscious mind of its imagery on to a detached and pre-existing outer world of nature. If so, it is our old friend 'animism' all over again" (WA 114).
See in particular Worlds Apart,  passim.